Polished p-wafers from vacancy-rich silicon crystals are used as substrates for many device applications and, in particular, for memory devices. Octahedral vacancy aggregates, the so-called crystal originated pits, are found in these wafers with sizes of 150 nm and densities of To meet the design rule requirements of 0.13 μm and below, a reduction of defect size and density is required. The approaches to achieve silicon with nearly no intrinsic point defect aggregates are the growth of so-called perfect crystals, the growth of nitrogen-doped crystals with very fast cooling rates and subsequent high temperature wafer annealing, and epitaxy of wafers. In addition, new concepts like wafers with a thin refinement layer grown on a cost and bulk optimized substrate (so-called fLASH! wafers) will allow further cost reduction. © 2002 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.
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