The lack of p-type lithium niobate limits it serving as an active material. A series of Mo-doped and pure congruent lithium niobate crystals were grown by Czochralski method under different polarization conditions. Their dominant carrier species were characterized by holographic experiment. The results showed dominant charge carrier species may be changed from electrons to holes when lithium niobate crystal was doped with Mo ions and polarized under the current of 70mA for 30 minutes. It indicated that p-type lithium niobate crystal could be fabricated by Mo-doping and suitably controlling the polarization condition. Mo-doped lithium niobate crystals can be a promising candidate for active components.
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