Defect characterization of β-Ga2O3 single crystals grown by vertical Bridgman method
The characteristics of structural defects observed on (100) wafers in β-Ga2O3 single crystals grown by directional solidification in a vertical Bridgman furnace were studied in terms of crystal growth conditions. No high-dislocation-density regions near the wafer periphery were observed owing to the lack of adhesion between the as-grown crystal ingot surface and the crucible inner wall, and directional solidification growth in a crucible with a very low temperature gradient resulted in β-Ga2O3 single crystals with a low mean dislocation density of 2.3 × 103 cm−2. Line-shaped defects up to 150 µm long in the  direction were detected at a mean density of 0.5 × 102 cm−2, which decreased with decreasing growth rate. The line-shaped defect structure and formation mechanism were discussed.
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