Germanium (1 1 1)-oriented crystals have been grown by the vertical Bridgman technique, in both detached and attached configurations. Microstructural characterization of these crystals has been performed using synchrotron white beam X-ray topography (SWBXT) and double axis X-ray diffraction. Dislocation densities were measured from X-ray topographs obtained using the reflection geometry. For detached-grown crystals, the dislocation density is on the order of 104 cm−2 in the seed region, and decreases in the direction of growth to less than 103 cm−2, and in some crystals reaches less than 102 cm−2. For crystals grown in the attached configuration, dislocation densities were on the order of 104 cm−2 in the middle of the crystals, increasing to greater than 105 cm−2 near the edge. The measured dislocation densities are in excellent agreement with etch pit density (EPD) results. Broadening and splitting of the rocking curve linewidths was observed in the vicinity of subgrain boundaries identified by X-ray topography in some of the attached-grown crystal wafers. The spatial distribution of rocking curve linewidths across the wafers corresponds to the spatial distribution of defect densities measured in the X-ray topographs and EPD micrographs.
Journal of Crystal Growth
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